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Relationship between adiponectin and heart failure

Adiponectin is a protein present in human beings, and the ADIPOQ gene is the one responsible for encoding adiponectin protein. Extracts obtained from sweet potatoes contain higher amounts of adiponectin that help in improving the control of glycemic in human beings.

Structure
Adiponectin protein is made up of a long 244 amino acid polypeptide. It has four regions in which the first one is a short signal sequence that is function is to target the secretion of hormones that occurs inside of the cell. The second section is a short section whose size varies among different species. The third section is a region that is made up of a 65-amino acid. The fourth section comprises a globular domain

Functions
Adiponectin protein is a hormone that helps in modulating different metabolic processes that take place in the human body. These processes include regulation of the amount of glucose in the body and oxidation of the fatty acids.

Adipose tissue produces adiponectin and is also produced by the placenta during pregnancy. The amounts secreted in the blood are relatively large compared to that of other animals. There is an inverse correlation between the levels of adiponectin in the blood to the number of body fats present in a body of an adult.

In animals the amounts of this protein increase during a caloric restriction for example in patients who have anorexia nervosa condition. The amount of adipose tissue found within the bone marrow increases during a caloric restriction that leads to an increase in the amounts of adiponectin in the blood.

The increase in the amounts of this protein in the blood impairs the differentiation of the adipocyte that in turn increases the energy expenditure due to the uncoupling of the protein. The concentration of the amount of adiponectin protein is higher in the female is higher as compared to that present in the bloodstream of men.

Those suffering from diabetes have lower concentrations as compared to non-diabetic. The increase in concentration in the blood leads to a reduction in one’s weight.

Relationship between adiponectin and heart failure
Adiponectin forms larger structures by self-association a process that occurs without its initiation by any enzyme. The molecules of adiponectin join to form a homotrimer. This self-association results in the formation of hexamers.

The concentration of these higher-order molecules is also sexually dimorphic where females have a higher concentration compared to that in men. The higher-order adiponectin molecules lower the risks of one contracting diabetes. These high-order molecules have a positive association with coronary heart disease which is unlike the low-order molecule that has a lower molecular weight.

Expression of adiponectin in diseases
Adiponectin reduces inflammations that enhance the development and the progression of cardiovascular diseases like coronary artery disease.

Obesity occurs before proinflammatory occurs which results in cardiovascular infections like acute coronary syndrome and congestive heart failure.

Levels of adiponectin are higher in people suffering from chronic inflammatory diseases such as chronic systolic heart failure. Patients who suffer from hypertrophic cardiomyopathy that causes diastolic dysfunction also have higher levels of the adiponectin protein.

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